# Sets and Maps

Sets and maps are probably the most important data structures you need to know to solve interview problems. They are very widely used in numerous problems.

## Sets

Set is a data structure that contains a collection of unique elements, and supports insertion of new elements and deletion of the existing ones. Its concept is similar to the mathematical concept of a set.

There are two variations of a set implementation.

### Hash table based set

Hash table based set performs all basic operations in constant O(1) time. In most interview questions, you should use this implementation. Here is how it looks in Java and C++:

Java
C++
``````Set<Integer> set = new HashSet<>();

System.out.println(set);              // prints [5, 7]

System.out.println(set.size());       // prints 2

System.out.println(set.contains(7));  // true
System.out.println(set.contains(8));  // false

set.remove(7);
System.out.println(set);              // [5]``````

### Tree based set

Tree based sets are usually implemented with balanced binary trees, and perform most operations in O(logN) time.

In addition to the basic set operations, they also keep set elements in a sorted order, and support cool operations like these:

Java
C++
``````TreeSet<Integer> set = new TreeSet<>();

set.add(7);                        // set is now [3, 5, 7, 9], and guaranteed to be in this order

System.out.println(set.first());   // prints 3, the smallest element in the set
System.out.println(set.last());    // prints 9, the biggest element in the set

// higher(X) returns the smallest element in the set greater than X
System.out.println(set.higher(6)); // 7
System.out.println(set.higher(7)); // 9
System.out.println(set.higher(9)); // null

// ceiling(X) returns the smallest element in the set greater or equal to X
System.out.println(set.ceiling(6)); // 7
System.out.println(set.ceiling(7)); // 7
System.out.println(set.ceiling(9)); // 9``````

You can solve the following problem to practice using set:

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## Maps

Maps are data structures that contain keys and the values that the keys correspond to.

As with sets, there are two map variations:

### Hash table based map

Hash table based map performs all basic operations in constant O(1) time. In most interview questions, you should use this implementation. Here is how it looks in Java and C++:

Java
C++
``````Map<Integer, String> map = new HashMap<>();

map.put(5, "Five");
map.put(7, "Seven");
map.put(7, "VII");
System.out.println(map);                          // prints {5=Five, 7=VII}

System.out.println(map.size());                   // prints 2

System.out.println(map.containsKey(7));           // true
System.out.println(map.containsValue("Seven"));   // false

map.remove(7);
System.out.println(map);                          // prints {5=Five}``````

### Tree based map

Tree based maps are usually implemented with balanced binary trees, and perform most operations in O(logN) time.

As with tree based sets, they also keep elements in a sorted order (sorted by key), and support cool operations like these:

Java
C++
``````TreeMap<Integer, String> map = new TreeMap<>();

map.put(5, "Five");
map.put(9, "Nine");
map.put(3, "Three");
map.put(7, "Seven");

// prints {3=Three, 5=Five, 7=Seven, 9=Nine}, this order is guaranteed
System.out.println(map);

System.out.println(map.firstEntry());   // prints 3=Three, entry with the smallest key in the map
System.out.println(map.lastEntry());    // prints 9=Nine, entry with the biggest key in the map

// higherEntry(X) returns the entry in the map with the smallest key greater than X
System.out.println(map.higherEntry(6)); // 7=Seven
System.out.println(map.higherEntry(7)); // 9=Nine
System.out.println(map.higherEntry(9)); // null

// ceilingEntry(X) returns the entry in the map with the smallest key greater or equal to X
System.out.println(map.ceilingEntry(6)); // 7=Seven
System.out.println(map.ceilingEntry(7)); // 7=Seven
System.out.println(map.ceilingEntry(9)); // 9=Nine``````

You can practice using map on the following problem:

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Solution

## Practice problems

There are many great problems where sets and maps come handy. Let's take a look at some of them:

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Here are some more good practice problems: